Many issues that are seen as behavior problems are not actually behavior problems at all. They are just dogs being dogs and cats being cats, doing whatever it is they like or need to do!
We expect our pets to blend in with our lifestyles. But our busy urban existence is often far removed from their natural environment and does not always take into account their physical, biological and psychological needs. In spite of this, most pets respond surprisingly well to the demands we make on them. Unfortunately, a conflict may sometimes arise when they perform their natural behaviours in an inappropriate (according to us) environment or context. So sometimes they need a little help to adjust and to understand what it is we want them to do (or not to do!).
Animals do not misbehave on purpose, or to upset us. They just do what they need to do to get what they want and to retain a level of contentment. They have no concept of right or wrong. There is no place for punishment or corrective or aversive training methods in dealing with animal behaviour problems. Instead, through clicker training and other methods of positive reinforcement, we ensure that we always set the animal up for success by providing a safe environment for him/her to try out and learn new, more appropriate behaviours - without fear of being punished.